您好,欢迎光临世界标品! 登录 注册(订药物标准品请用邮件联系我们)

中国医药研发对照标品提供商
Non-clinical Research-used
Medicine Sample Provider

当前本网站药物产品种数共 8420 处方药 8047 非处方药 267 保健品/医疗用具 106

世界标品医药目录搜索(中英文):
世界各国官方药品目录搜索(英文):
世界标品医药知识搜索(中英文):

联系方式
国内客服电话:
国际免费电话:


QQ客服1:1793093587
QQ客服2:1586083059
QQ客服3:2786706041
QQ客服6:2992753224
QQ客服7:2394834588

咨询邮箱:
scimed.shanghai@shijiebiaopin.com
info@shijiebiaopin.com
pharmacy.shijiebiaopin1@gmail.com
pharmacy.shijiebiaopin2@gmail.com

  药店国别: 德国药房
产地国家: 德国
所属类别: 神经系统药物->帕金森症
处方药:处方药
包装规格: 0.26毫克/片 30片/瓶
计价单位:
  点击放大  
生产厂家中文参考译名:
勃林格殷格翰
生产厂家英文名:
Boehringer Ingelheim
该药品相关信息网址1:
http://www.mirapexer.com/
该药品相关信息网址2:
http://www.rxlist.com/mirapex-er-drug.htm
原产地英文商品名:
Sifrol 0.26mg 30Tablets
原产地英文药品名:
Pramipexole
中文参考商品译名:
森福罗 0.26毫克/片 30片/瓶
中文参考药品译名:
盐酸普拉克索
中文参考化合物名称:
盐酸普拉克索; S(-)-2-氨基-6-正丙氨基-4,5,6,7-四氢苯并噻唑二盐酸盐
原产地国家批准上市年份:
2010/02/19
英文适应病症1:
Treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease
临床试验期:
完成
中文适应病症参考翻译1:
治疗特发性帕金森病
药品信息:

---------------------------------------------------------------
 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201061300193834.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
---------------------------------------------------------------
部分中文MIRAPEX ER处方资料(仅供参考)

英文药名: Mirapex (pramipexole tablets)

中文药名: 米拉帕(普拉克索片)

生产厂家: Boehringer Ingelheim

药品名称
药品名:盐酸普拉克索片
英文名:Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets
性状: 本品为白色片。

药理毒性
药理作用
普拉克索是一种非麦角类多巴胺激动剂。体外研究显示,普拉克索对D2受体的特异性较高并具有完全的内在活性,对D3受体的亲和力高于D2和D4受体。普拉克索与D3受体的这种结合作用与帕金森氏病的相关性不明确。普拉克索治疗帕金森氏病的确切机制尚不清楚,目前认为与激活纹状体的多巴胺受体有关。动物电生理试验显示,普拉克索可通过激活纹状体与黑质的多巴胺受体而影响纹状体神经元放电频率。
毒理研究
-遗传毒性 普拉克索Ames实验、HGRRT V79基因突变试验、CHO细胞染色体畸变试验、小鼠微核试验结果均为阴性。
-生殖毒性 生育力实验中,大鼠给予普拉克索2.5mg/kg/天(按mg/m2推算,相当于人最大推荐剂量(1.5mg,tid)的5.4倍),可见动情周期延长,着床率降低,这可能与普拉克索导致的血清催乳素水平降低有关(在大鼠早期妊娠中,胚胎的着床和维持需要催乳素,而家兔和人则不需要)。妊娠大鼠于致畸敏感期给予普拉克索1.5mg/kg天(按血浆AUC推算,相当于人最大推荐剂量时AUC的4.3倍),可总吸收胎发生率增加,这可能与普拉克索导致的血清催乳素水平降低有关。妊娠家兔于致畸敏感期给予普拉克索10mg/kg/天(血浆AUC为人给予最大推荐剂量时AUC的71倍),未见异常。妊娠大鼠围产期给予普拉克索0.5mg/kg/天(按mg/m2推算相当于人的最高临床推荐剂量)或更高剂量,子代大鼠出生后生长未受不良影响。
-致癌性 小鼠与大鼠掺食法分别给予普拉克索0.3、2、10mg/kg/天(按mg/m2推算,分别相当于人最大推荐剂量的0.3、2.2和11倍)或0.3、2、8mg/kg/天(按血浆AUC推算,分别相当于人最大推荐剂时AUC的0.3、2.5和12.5倍),未见肿瘤发生率增加。

药代动力学
普拉克索口服吸收迅速完全。绝对生物利用度高于90%,最大血浆浓度在服药后1-3小时之间出现。与食物一起服用不会降低普拉克索吸收的程度,但会降低其吸收速率。普拉克索显示出线性动力学特点,患者间血浆水平差异很小。在人体内,普拉克索的血浆蛋白结合度很低(小于20%),分布容积很大(400普拉克索在男性体内的代谢程度很低。 以原形从肾脏排泄是普拉克索的主要清除途径。14C标记的药物大约有90%是通过肾排泄的,粪便中的药物少于2%。普拉克索的总清除率大约为500ml/分钟,肾脏清除率大约为400ml/分钟。年轻人和老年人的普拉克索清除半衰期(t1/2)从8?12小时不等。

适应症
本品被用来治疗特发性帕金森病的体征和症状,单独(无左旋多巴)或与左旋多巴联用。例如,在疾病后期左旋多巴的疗效逐渐减弱或者出现变化和波动时(剂末现象或开关波动),需要应用本品。

用法用量
*初始治疗:
起始剂量为每日0.375mg,然后每5-7天增加一次剂量。如果患者可以耐受,应增加剂量以达到最大疗效。
如果需要进一步增加剂量,应该以周为单位,每周加量一次,每次日剂量增加0.75mg,每日最大剂量为4.5mg。
然而,应该注意的是,每日剂量高于1.5mg时,嗜睡发生率增加(见【不良反应】)。
*维持治疗:
个体剂量应该在每天0.375mg至4.5mg之间。在剂量逐渐增加的三项重要研究中,从每日剂量为1.5mg开始可以观察到药物疗效。作进一步剂量调整应根据临床反应和耐受性进行。在临床试验中有大约5%的患者每天服用剂量低于1.5mg。当计划减少左旋多巴治疗时,每天服用剂量大于1.5mg对晚期帕金森病患者可能是有效的。在本品加量和维持治疗阶段,建议根据患者的个体反应减少左旋多巴用量。治疗中止:
突然中止多巴胺能治疗会导致非神经阻断性恶性综合症发生。因此,应该以每天减少0.75mg的速度逐渐停止应用普拉克索,直到日剂量降至0.75mg。此后,应每天减少0.375mg(见【注意事项】)。
*肾功能损害患者的用药: 普拉克索的清除依靠肾功能。
对于初始治疗建议应用如下剂量方案:
肌酐清除率高于50ml/min的患者无需降低日剂量。
肌酐清除率介于20-50ml/min之间的患者,本品的初始日剂量应分两次服用,每次0.125mg,每日两次。
肌酐清除率低于20ml/min的患者,本品的日剂量应一次服用,从每天0.125mg开始。
如果在维持治疗阶段肾功能降低,则以与肌酐清除率下降相同的百分比降低本品的日剂量,例如,当肌酐清除率下降30%,则本品的日剂量也减少30%。如果肌酐清除率介于20-50ml/min之间,日剂量应分两次服用;如果肌酐清除率低于20ml/min,日剂量应一次服用。
*肝功能损害患者的用药: 对肝功能衰竭的患者可能不需要进行剂量调整,因为所吸收的药物中大约90%是通过肾脏排泄的。然而,肝功能不全对本品药代动力学的潜在影响还未被阐明。
任何疑问,请遵医嘱!

不良反应
基于汇总的安慰剂对照试验,其中包括1351名服用本品的患者和1131名服用安慰剂的患者,分析显示两组都经常发生不良事件。88%服用本品的患者和83.6%服用安慰剂的患者至少报告过一起不良事件。当本品日剂量高于1.5mg(见【用法用量】)时嗜睡的发生率增加。与左旋多巴联用时最常见的不良反应是运动障碍。便秘、恶心和运动障碍往往随治疗进行逐渐消失。治疗初期可能发生低血压,尤其本品药量增加过快时。
下面是安慰剂对照试验中服用本品所发生的药物不良反应(数字为高于安慰剂的发生率):
*精神障碍:常见(1%-10%):失眠、幻觉、精神错乱
*神经系统异常:常见(1%-10%):眩晕、运动障碍、嗜睡
*血管异常:不常见(0.1-1%):低血压
*胃肠道异常:常见(1%-10%):恶心、便秘
*全身异常:常见(1%-10%):外周水肿 本品与嗜睡有关,与偶发的白天过度嗜睡及突然睡眠发作也有关。
*本品可能与性欲异常有关(增加或降低)。 另见【注意事项】

禁忌
对普拉克索或产品中任何其它成份过敏者。

注意事项
当肾功能损害的患者服用本品时,建议参照【用法用量】减少剂量。幻觉为多巴胺能受体激动剂和左旋多巴治疗的副反应。应告知患者可能会发生幻觉(多为视觉上的)。对于晚期帕金森病,联合应用左旋多巴,可能会在本品的初始加量阶段发生运动障碍。如果发生上述副反应,应该减少左旋多巴用量。
本品与嗜睡和突然睡眠发作有关,尤其对于帕金森病患者。在日常活动中的突然睡眠发作,有时没有意识或预兆,但是这种情况很少被报导。必须告知患者这种副反应,建议其在应用本品治疗的过程中要谨慎驾驶车辆或操作机器。已经发生过嗜睡和/或突然睡眠发作副反应的患者,必须避免驾驶或操作机器,而且应该考虑降低剂量或终止治疗。由于可能的累加效应,当患者在服用普拉克索时应慎用其它镇静类药物或酒精(见【对驾驶和操作机器能力的影响】和【不良反应】)。
有精神障碍的患者,如果潜在的益处大于风险,应仅用多巴胺能受体激动剂进行治疗。
普拉克索应避免与抗精神病药物同时应用(见【药物相互作用】)。
应定期或在发生视觉异常时进行眼科检查。
应注意伴随严重心血管疾病的患者。由于多巴胺能治疗与体位性低血压发生有关,建议监测血压,尤其在治疗初期。
已报道突然终止多巴胺能治疗时会发生非神经阻断性恶性综合症的症状(见【用法用量】)。

孕妇和哺乳期妇女用药
普拉克索对人妊娠期和哺乳期的影响还未被研究。它对大鼠和家兔没有致畸作用,但是,其在母体毒性剂量下对大鼠胚胎有毒性(见毒理研究)。本品禁用于妊娠期,除非确实需要,例如,对胎儿潜在的益处大于风险时。由于本品抑制人催乳素的分泌,因此其抑制泌乳。本品是否可分泌到妇女乳汁中还未作研究。大鼠乳汁中药物相关的放射性强度高于血浆。由于缺乏人体数据,应尽可能不在哺乳期内应用本品。然而,如果其应用不可避免的话,应中止哺乳。

MIRAPEX® ER™
(pramipexole dihydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets

DRUG DESCRIPTION
MIRAPEX ER tablets contain pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine agonist. The chemical name of pramipexole dihydrochloride is (S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6(propylamino)benzothiazole dihydrochloride monohydrate. Its empirical formula is C10 H17N3S·2HCl·H2O, and its molecular weight is 302.26.

Pramipexole dihydrochloride is a white to off-white powder substance. Melting occurs in the range of 296°C to 301°C, with decomposition. Pramipexole dihydrochloride is more than 20% soluble in water, about 8% in methanol, about 0.5% in ethanol, and practically insoluble in dichloromethane.

MIRAPEX ER tablets, for oral administration, contain 0.375 mg, 0.75 mg, 1.5 mg, 3 mg, or 4.5 mg of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate. Inactive ingredients are hypromellose, corn starch, carbomer homopolymer, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate.

-----------------------------------------------------

INDICATIONS
MIRAPEX® ER™ tablets are indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

-----------------------------------------------------

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
General Dosing Considerations
MIRAPEX ER tablets are taken orally once daily, with or without food.

MIRAPEX ER tablets must be swallowed whole and must not be chewed, crushed, or divided.

If a significant interruption in therapy with MIRAPEX ER tablets has occurred, re-titration of therapy may be warranted.

Dosing for Parkinson's Disease
The starting dose is 0.375 mg given once per day. Based on efficacy and tolerability, dosages may be increased gradually, not more frequently than every 5 to 7 days, first to 0.75 mg per day and then by 0.75 mg increments up to a maximum recommended dose of 4.5 mg per day.

In clinical trials, dosage was initiated at 0.375 mg/day and gradually titrated based on individual therapeutic response and tolerability. Doses greater than 4.5 mg/day have not been studied in clinical trials. Patients should be assessed for therapeutic response and tolerability at a minimal interval of 5 days or longer after each dose increment [see Clinical Studies].

Due to the flexible dose design used in clinical trials, specific dose-response information could not be determined [see Clinical Studies].

When discontinuing therapy with MIRAPEX ER, taper the dose gradually over a period of one week. In some studies with immediate-release pramipexole tablets, however, abrupt discontinuation was uneventful.

Dosing in Patients with Renal Impairment
The elimination of pramipexole is dependent on renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Patients with mild renal impairment (a creatinine clearance above 50 mL/min) require no reduction in daily dose.

In patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 30 and 50 mL/min), MIRAPEX ER tablets should initially be taken every other day. Caution should be exercised and careful assessment of therapeutic response and tolerability should be made before increasing to daily dosing after one week, and before any additional titration in 0.375 mg increments up to 2.25 mg per day. Dose adjustment should occur no more frequently than at weekly intervals.

MIRAPEX ER tablets have not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) or patients on hemodialysis, and are not recommended in these patients.

Switching from Immediate-Release Pramipexole Tablets to MIRAPEX ER
Patients may be switched overnight from immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets at the same daily dose. When switching between immediate-release pramipexole tablets and MIRAPEX ER tablets, patients should be monitored to determine if dosage adjustment is necessary.

-----------------------------------------------------

HOW SUPPLIED
Dosage Forms And Strengths
0.375 mg white to off-white, round, bevel-edged, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “0.375” on the other side

0.75 mg white to off-white, round, bevel-edged, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “0.75” on the other side

1.5 mg white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “1.5” on the other side 3 mg white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “3.0” on the other side

4.5 mg white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “4.5” on the other side

Storage And Handling
MIRAPEX ER tablets are available as follows:

0. 375 mg: white to off-white, round, bevel-edged, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “0.375” on the other side.
Unit of Use Bottles of 30 NDC 0597-0109-30

0.75 mg: white to off-white, round, bevel-edged, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “0.75” on the other side.
Unit of Use Bottles of 30 NDC 0597-0285-30

1.5 mg: white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “1.5” on the other side.
Unit of Use Bottles of 30 NDC 0597-0113-30

3 mg: white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “3.0” on the other side.
Unit of Use Bottles of 30 NDC 0597-0115-30

4.5 mg: white to off-white, oval, extended-release tablets debossed with “ER” on one side and “4.5” on the other side.
Unit of Use Bottles of 30 NDC 0597-0116-30

Storage
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from exposure to high humidity. Store in a safe place out of the reach of children.

-----------------------------------------------------

SIDE EFFECTS
The following are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Symptomatic Orthostatic Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Impulse Control / Compulsive Behaviors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Hallucinations [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Dyskinesia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Renal Impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Rhabdomyolysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Retinal Pathology in Rat [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse event rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug (or of another development program of a different formulation of the same drug) and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

During the premarketing development of MIRAPEX ER tablets, patients with early Parkinson's disease were treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets, placebo, or immediate-release pramipexole tablets. In addition, a randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial was conducted in 156 early Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stages I-III) to assess overnight switching of immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets. In this latter study, concomitant treatment with stable doses of levodopa, monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (MAOB-I) drugs, anticholinergics, or amantadine, individually or in combination, was allowed. In a third trial, advanced Parkinson's disease patients received MIRAPEX ER tablets, placebo, or immediate-release pramipexole tablets as adjunctive therapy to levodopa.

Early Parkinson's Disease
The most commonly observed adverse events ( ≥ 5% and more frequent than placebo) after 33 weeks of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets in the trial of early Parkinson's disease patients were somnolence, nausea, constipation, dizziness, fatigue, hallucinations, dry mouth, muscle spasms, and peripheral edema.

Twenty four of 223 (11%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets for 33 weeks discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared to 4 of 103 (4%) patients who received placebo and approximately 20 of 213 (9%) patients who received immediate-release pramipexole tablets. The adverse event most commonly causing discontinuation of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets was nausea (2%).

Because this study used a flexible dose titration design, it was not possible to assess the effects of dose on the incidence of adverse events.

Adverse events can initially occur in either the titration or maintenance phase. Some adverse events developed in MIRAPEX ER-treated patients during the titration phase and persisted ( ≥ 7 days) into the maintenance phase (i.e., MIRAPEX ER % - placebo % = treatment difference ≥ 2%); persistent adverse events were somnolence, nausea, constipation, fatigue, and dry mouth.

A double-blind, randomized, parallel group trial evaluated the tolerability of an overnight switch from immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets at the same daily dose in 156 early Parkinson's disease patients with or without levodopa. One of 104 patients switched from immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets discontinued due to adverse events (vertigo and nausea).

Advanced Parkinson's Disease
The most commonly observed adverse events ( ≥ 5% and greater frequency than in placebo) during 18 weeks of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets in the trial of advanced Parkinson's disease patients with concomitant levodopa were dyskinesia, nausea, constipation, hallucinations, headache, and anorexia.

Eight of 164 (5%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets for 18 weeks discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared to 7 of 178 (4%) patients who received placebo and 8 of 175 (5%) patients who received immediate-release pramipexole tablets. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets were nausea (1%) and hallucination (1%).

Because this flexible dose study used a titration design, it was not possible to assess the effects of dose on the incidence of adverse events.

Adverse events can initially occur in either the titration or maintenance phase. Some adverse events developed in MIRAPEX ER-treated patients during the titration phase and persisted ( ≥ 7 days) into the maintenance phase (i.e., MIRAPEX ER % - placebo % = treatment difference ≥ 2%); persistent adverse events were dyskinesia and insomnia.

Laboratory Testing
During the development of MIRAPEX ER tablets, no systematic abnormalities on routine laboratory testing were noted. Therefore, no specific guidance is offered regarding routine monitoring; the practitioner retains responsibility for determining how best to monitor the patient in his or her care.

Other adverse events observed during clinical trials of immediate-release pramipexole tablets

Adverse events not listed above but reported on at least two occasions (one occasion if the event was serious) in clinical studies involving 2509 individuals who received pramipexole immediate-release tablets are listed below. The reported events are included without regard to determination of a causal relationship to pramipexole immediate-release tablets.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: anemia, iron deficiency anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, lymphadenitis, lymphadenopathy, thrombocythaemia, thrombocytopenia

Cardiac disorders: angina pectoris, arrhythmia supraventricular, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular block first degree, atrioventricular block second degree, bradycardia, bundle branch block, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, cardiac failure congestive, cardiomegaly, coronary artery occlusion, cyanosis, extrasystoles, left ventricular failure, myocardial infarction, nodal arrhythmia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular extrasystoles, supraventricular tachycardia, tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular hypertrophy

Congenital, familial, and genetic disorders: atrial septal defect, congenital foot malformation, spine malformation

Ear and labyrinth disorders: deafness, ear pain, hearing impaired, hypoacusis, motion sickness, vestibular ataxia

Endocrine disorders: goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism

Eye disorders: accommodation abnormalities, amaurosis fugax, blepharitis, blepharospasm, cataract, dacryostenosis acquired, diplopia, dry eye, eye hemorrhage, eye irritation, eye pain, eyelid edema, eyelid ptosis, glaucoma, keratitis, macular degeneration, myopia, photophobia, retinal detachment, retinal vascular disorder, scotoma, vision abnormalities, vision blurred, visual acuity reduced, vitreous floaters

Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal distension, aphthous stomatitis, ascites, cheilitis, colitis, colitis ulcerative, dyspepsia, dysphagia, duodenal ulcer, duodenal ulcer hemorrhage, enteritis, eructation, fecal incontinence, gastric ulcer, gastric ulcer hemorrhage, gastritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gingivitis, haematemesis, haematochezia, hemorrhoids, hiatus hernia, hyperchlorhydria, ileus, inguinal hernia, intestinal obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome, esophageal spasm, esophageal stenosis, esophagitis, pancreatitis, periodontitis, rectal hemorrhage, reflux esophagitis, tongue edema, tongue ulceration, toothache, umbilical hernia

General disorders: chest discomfort, chills, death, drug withdrawal syndrome, face edema, feeling cold, feeling hot, feeling jittery, fever, gait disturbance, impaired healing, influenza-like illness, irritability, localized edema, edema, malaise, pitting edema, thirst

Hepatobiliary disorders: biliary colic, cholecystitis, cholecystitis chronic, cholelithiasis

Immune system disorders: drug hypersensitivity

Infections and infestations: abscess, acute tonsillitis, appendicitis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, cellulitis, cystitis, dental caries, diverticulitis, ear infection, eye infection, folliculitis, fungal infection, furuncle, gangrene, gastroenteritis, gingival infection, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hordeolum, influenza, intervertebral discitis, laryngitis, lobar pneumonia, nail infection, onychomycosis, oral candidiasis, orchitis, osteomyelitis, otitis externa, otitis media, paronychia, pyelonephritis, pyoderma, sepsis, skin infection, tonsillitis, tooth abscess, tooth infection, upper respiratory tract infection, urethritis, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal infection, viral infection, wound infection

Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: accidental falls, drug toxicity epicondylitis, road traffic accident, sunburn, tendon rupture

Metabolism and nutrition disorders: cachexia, decreased appetite, decreased weight, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, fluid retention, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypovitaminosis, increased creatine PK, metabolic alkalosis

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: bone pain, bursitis, fasciitis, flank pain, intervertebral disc disorder, intervertebral disc protrusion, joint effusion, joint stiffness, joint swelling, monarthritis, muscle rigidity, musculoskeletal stiffness, myasthenia, myopathy, myositis, nuchal rigidity, osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, pain in extremity, polymyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, shoulder pain, spinal osteoarthritis, tendonitis, tenosynovitis, twitching

Neoplasms benign, malignant, and unspecified: abdominal neoplasm, adenocarcinoma, adenoma benign, basal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, breast cancer, breast neoplasm, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastric cancer, gastrointestinal neoplasm, hemangioma, hepatic neoplasm, hepatic neoplasm malignant, lip and/or oral cavity cancer, lung neoplasm malignant, lung cancer metastatic, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, melanocytic naevus, metastases to lung, multiple myeloma, oral neoplasm benign, neoplasm, neoplasm malignant, neoplasm prostate, neoplasm skin, neuroma, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, prostatic adenoma, pseudo lymphoma, renal neoplasm, skin cancer, skin papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid neoplasm, uterine leiomyoma

Nervous system disorders: ageusia, akinesia, amnesia, akathisia, anticholinergic syndrome, aphasia, brain edema, carotid artery occlusion, carpal tunnel syndrome, cerebral artery embolism, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia, chorea, cognitive disorder, coma, convulsion, coordination abnormal, dementia, depressed level of consciousness, disturbance in attention, dizziness postural, dysarthria, dysgraphia, dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, facial palsy, grand mal convulsion, hemiplegia, hyperaesthesia, hyperkinesia, hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypotonia, lethargy, loss of consciousness, memory impairment, migraine, muscle contractions involuntary, myoclonus, narcolepsy, neuralgia, neuropathy, nystagmus, parosmia, psychomotor hyperactivity, sciatica, sedation, sensory disturbance, sleep phase rhythm disturbance, sleep talking, stupor, syncope vasovagal, tension headache, thinking abnormalities

Psychiatric disorders: affect lability, aggression, agitation, bradyphrenia, bruxism, suicide, delirium, delusions, delusional disorder persecutory type, disorientation, dissociation, emotional distress, euphoric mood, initial insomnia, libido increased, mania, middle insomnia, mood altered, nightmare, obsessive thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic reaction, paranoid reaction, parasomnia, personality disorder, psychotic disorder, restlessness, sleep walking, suicidal ideation

Renal and urinary disorders: chromaturia, dysuria, glycosuria, hematuria, urgency, nephrolithiasis, neurogenic bladder, nocturia, oliguria, pollakiuria, proteinuria, renal artery stenosis, renal colic, renal cyst, renal failure, renal impairment, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract infection

Reproductive system and breast disorders: amenorrhea, breast pain, dysmenorrhea, epididymitis, gynaecomastia, impotence, menopausal symptoms, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, ovarian cyst, priapism, prostatitis, sexual dysfunction, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal discharge, vaginal hemorrhage

Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: apnea, aspiration, asthma, choking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dry throat, dysphonia, dyspnea exertional, epistaxis, haemoptysis, hiccups, hyperventilation, increased bronchial secretion, laryngospasm, nasal congestion, nasal dryness, nasal polyps, obstructive airways disorder, pharyngolaryngeal pain, pleurisy, pneumonia, pneumonia aspiration, pneumothorax, postnasal drip, productive cough, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema, respiratory alkalosis, respiratory distress, respiratory failure, respiratory tract congestion, rhinitis allergic, rhinorrhea, sinus congestion, sleep apnoea syndrome, sneezing, snoring, tachypnea, wheezing

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: acne, alopecia, cold sweat, dermal cyst, dermatitis, dermatitis bullous, dermatitis contact, dry skin, ecchymosis, eczema, erythema, hyperkeratosis, livedo reticularis, night sweats, periorbital edema, petechiae, photosensitivity allergic reaction, psoriasis, purpura, rash erythematous, rash maculo-papular, rash papular, rosacea, seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, skin burning sensation, skin discoloration, skin disorders, skin exfoliation, skin hyperpigmentation, skin hypertrophy, skin irritation, skin nodule, skin odor abnormal, skin ulcer, urticaria

Vascular disorders: aneurysm, angiopathy, arteriosclerosis, circulatory collapse, deep vein thrombosis, embolism, hematoma, hot flush, hypertensive crisis, lymphoedema, pallor, phlebitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, shock, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, varicose vein

Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of immediate-release pramipexole tablets, primarily in Parkinson's disease patients. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to pramipexole tablets. Similar types of events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using the MedDRA terminology: abnormal behavior, abnormal dreams, accidents (including fall), blackouts, compulsive shopping, fatigue, hallucinations (all kinds), headache, hypotension (including postural hypotension), increased eating (including binge eating, compulsive eating, and hyperphagia), libido disorders (including increased and decreased libido, and hypersexuality), pathological gambling, pruritus, syncope, vomiting, and weight increase.

-----------------------------------------------------

DRUG INTERACTIONS
No drug interaction studies were conducted with MIRAPEX ER tablets since the potential for drug interactions mainly depends on the active drug substance pramipexole and not the formulation. Data are available for the immediate-release pramipexole tablet formulation [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Dopamine Antagonists
Since pramipexole is a dopamine agonist, it is possible that dopamine antagonists, such as the neuroleptics (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes) or metoclopramide, may diminish the effectiveness of MIRAPEX ER tablets.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
There are no known interactions between pramipexole and laboratory tests.

Drug Abuse And Dependence
Controlled Substance
Pramipexole is not a controlled substance.

Abuse and Dependence
Pramipexole has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. However, in a rat model of cocaine self-administration, pramipexole had little or no effect.

-----------------------------------------------------

WARNINGS
Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

-----------------------------------------------------

PRECAUTIONS
Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living
Patients treated with pramipexole have reported falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living, including the operation of motor vehicles, which sometimes resulted in accidents. Although many of these patients reported somnolence while on pramipexole tablets, some perceived that they had no warning signs such as excessive drowsiness, and believed that they were alert immediately prior to the event. Some of these events had been reported as late as one year after the initiation of treatment. In placebo-controlled clinical trials in Parkinson's disease, the sudden onset of sleep or sleep attacks were reported in 8 of 387 (2%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets compared to 2 of 281 (1%) patients on placebo.

In early Parkinson's disease, somnolence was reported in 36% of 223 patients treated with MIRAPEX ER, median dose 3.0 mg/day, compared to 15% of 103 patients on placebo. In advanced Parkinson's disease, somnolence was reported in 15% of 164 patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets, median dose 3 mg/day, compared to 16% of 178 patients on placebo. Many clinical experts believe that falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living always occurs in a setting of preexisting somnolence, although patients may not give such a history. For this reason, prescribers should continually reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness, especially since some of the events occur well after the start of treatment. Prescribers should also be aware that patients may not acknowledge drowsiness or sleepiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities.

Before initiating treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets, advise patients of the potential to develop drowsiness, and specifically ask about factors that may increase the risk such as the use of concomitant sedating medications or alcohol, the presence of sleep disorders, and concomitant medications that increase pramipexole plasma levels (e.g., cimetidine) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. If a patient develops significant daytime sleepiness or episodes of falling asleep during activities that require active participation (e.g., conversations, eating, etc.), MIRAPEX ER tablets should ordinarily be discontinued. If a decision is made to continue MIRAPEX ER tablets, advise patients not to drive and to avoid other potentially dangerous activities. While dose reduction reduces the degree of somnolence, there is insufficient information to establish that dose reduction will eliminate episodes of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living.

Symptomatic Orthostatic Hypotension
Dopamine agonists, in clinical studies and clinical experience, appear to impair the systemic regulation of blood pressure, with resulting orthostatic hypotension, especially during dose escalation. Parkinson's disease patients, in addition, appear to have an impaired capacity to respond to an orthostatic challenge. For these reasons, Parkinson's disease patients being treated with dopaminergic agonists, including MIRAPEX ER, ordinarily require careful monitoring for signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, especially during dose escalation, and should be informed of this risk [see PATIENT INFORMATION]. In placebo-controlled clinical trials in Parkinson's disease, symptomatic orthostatic hypotension was reported in 10 of 387 (3%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets compared to 3 of 281 (1%) patients on placebo. One patient of 387 on MIRAPEX ER tablets discontinued treatment due to hypotension.

Impulse Control/Compulsive Behaviors
Case reports and the results of cross-sectional studies suggest that patients can experience intense urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, intense urges to spend money, binge eating, and/or other intense urges, and the inability to control these urges while taking one or more of the medications, including MIRAPEX ER, that increase central dopaminergic tone and that are generally used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In some cases, although not all, these urges were reported to have stopped when the dose was reduced or the medication was discontinued. Because patients may not recognize these behaviors as abnormal, it is important for prescribers to specifically ask patients or their caregivers about the development of new or increased gambling urges, sexual urges, uncontrolled spending or other urges while being treated with MIRAPEX ER. Physicians should consider dose reduction or stopping the medication if a patient develops such urges while taking MIRAPEX ER. [see PATIENT INFORMATION] A total of 1056 patients with Parkinson's disease who participated in two MIRAPEX ER placebo-controlled studies of up to 33 weeks duration were specifically asked at each visit about the occurrence of these symptoms. A total of 14 of 387 (4%) treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets, 12 of 388 (3 %) treated with immediate-release pramipexole tablets, and 4 of 281 (1%) treated with placebo reported compulsive behaviors, including pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and/or compulsive buying.

Hallucinations
In placebo-controlled clinical trials in Parkinson's disease, hallucinations (visual or auditory or mixed) were reported in 25 of 387 (6%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets compared to 5 of 281 (2%) patients receiving placebo. Hallucinations led to discontinuation of treatment in 5 of 387 (1%) patients on MIRAPEX ER tablets.

Age appears to increase the risk of hallucinations attributable to pramipexole. In placebo-controlled clinical trials in Parkinson's disease, hallucinations were reported in 15 of 162 (9%)patients ≥ 65 years of age taking MIRAPEX ER tablets compared to 10 of 225 (4%)patients < 65 years of age taking MIRAPEX ER tablets.

Dyskinesia
MIRAPEX ER tablets may potentiate the dopaminergic side effects of levodopa and may cause or exacerbate preexisting dyskinesia.

Renal Impairment
The elimination of pramipexole is dependent on renal function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Patients with mild renal impairment (a creatinine clearance above 50 mL/min) require no reduction in daily dose. MIRAPEX ER tablets have not been studied in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min) or on hemodialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use in Specific Populations, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Rhabdomyolysis
In the clinical development program for immediate-release pramipexole tablets, a single case of rhabdomyolysis occurred in a 49-year-old male with advanced Parkinson's disease. The patient was hospitalized with an elevated CPK (10,631 IU/L). The symptoms resolved with discontinuation of the medication.

Advise patients to contact a physician if they experience any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, as these may be symptoms of rhabdomyolysis.

Retinal Pathology in Rat
Animal Data
Pathologic changes (degeneration and loss of photoreceptor cells) were observed in the retina of albino rats in a 2-year carcinogenicity study. While retinal degeneration was not diagnosed in pigmented rats treated for 2 years, a thinning in the outer nuclear layer of the retina was slightly greater in rats given drug compared with controls. Evaluation of the retinas of albino mice, monkeys, and minipigs did not reveal similar changes. The potential significance of this effect for humans has not been established, but cannot be disregarded because disruption of a mechanism that is universally present in vertebrates (i.e., disk shedding) may be involved [see Nonclinical Toxicology].

Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy
Although the events enumerated below may not have been reported with the use of pramipexole in its development program, they are associated with the use of other dopaminergic drugs. The expected incidence of these events, however, is so low that even if pramipexole caused these events at rates similar to those attributable to other dopaminergic therapies, it would be unlikely that even a single case would have occurred in a cohort of the size exposed to pramipexole in studies to date.

Withdrawal-Emergent Hyperpyrexia and Confusion
Although not reported with pramipexole in the clinical development program, a symptom complex resembling the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (characterized by elevated temperature, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability), with no other obvious etiology, has been reported in association with rapid dose reduction, withdrawal of, or changes in anti-Parkinsonian therapy.

Fibrotic Complications
Cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusion, pleural thickening, pericarditis, and cardiac valvulopathy have been reported in patients treated with ergot-derived dopaminergic agents. While these complications may resolve when the drug is discontinued, complete resolution does not always occur.

Although these adverse events are believed to be related to the ergoline structure of these compounds, whether other, non-ergot derived dopamine agonists can cause them is unknown.

Cases of possible fibrotic complications, including peritoneal fibrosis, pleural fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis have been reported in the postmarketing experience with immediate-release pramipexole tablets. While the evidence is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between pramipexole and these fibrotic complications, a contribution of pramipexole cannot be completely ruled out.

Melanoma
Epidemiologic studies have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease have a higher risk (2- to approximately 6-fold higher) of developing melanoma than the general population. Whether the observed increased risk was due to Parkinson's disease or other factors, such as drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease, is unclear.

For the reasons stated above, patients and providers are advised to monitor for melanomas frequently and on a regular basis when using MIRAPEX ER tablets for any indication. Ideally, periodic skin examinations should be performed by appropriately qualified individuals (e.g., dermatologists).

Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling

Dosing Instructions
Instruct patients to take MIRAPEX ER tablets only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.

MIRAPEX ER tablets can be taken with or without food. If patients develop nausea, advise that taking MIRAPEX ER tablets with food may reduce the occurrence of nausea.

MIRAPEX ER tablets should be swallowed whole. They should not be chewed, crushed, or divided [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Pramipexole is the active ingredient that is in both MIRAPEX ER tablets and immediate-release pramipexole tablets. Ensure that patients do not take both immediate-release pramipexole and MIRAPEX ER.

Sedating Effects
Alert patients to the potential sedating effects of MIRAPEX ER tablets, including somnolence and the possibility of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living. Since somnolence is a frequent adverse event with potentially serious consequences, patients should neither drive a car nor engage in other potentially dangerous activities until they have gained sufficient experience with MIRAPEX ER tablets to gauge whether or not it affects their mental and/or motor performance adversely. Advise patients that if increased somnolence or new episodes of falling asleep during activities of daily living (e.g., conversations or eating) are experienced at any time during treatment, they should not drive or participate in potentially dangerous activities until they have contacted their physician. Because of possible additive effects, caution should be advised when patients are taking other sedating medications or alcohol in combination with MIRAPEX ER and when taking concomitant medications that increase plasma levels of pramipexole (e.g., cimetidine) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Impulse Control Symptoms Including Compulsive Behaviors
Patients and their caregivers should be alerted to the possibility that they may experience intense urges to spend money, intense urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, binge eating and/or other intense urges and the inability to control these urges while taking Mirapex. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Hallucinations
Inform patients that hallucinations can occur and that the elderly are at a higher risk than younger patients with Parkinson's disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Postural (Orthostatic) Hypotension
Advise patients that they may develop postural (orthostatic) hypotension, with or without symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, fainting, or blackouts, and sometimes, sweating. Hypotension may occur more frequently during initial therapy. Accordingly, caution patients against rising rapidly after sitting or lying down, especially if they have been doing so for prolonged periods and especially at the initiation of treatment with MIRAPEX ER [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Pregnancy
Because the teratogenic potential of pramipexole has not been completely established in laboratory animals, and because experience in humans is limited, advise women to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy [see Use in Specific Populations].

Nursing Mothers
Because of the possibility that pramipexole may be excreted in breast milk, advise women to notify their physicians if they intend to breast-feed or are breast-feeding an infant [see Use in Specific Populations].

Nonclinical Toxicology
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Two-year carcinogenicity studies with pramipexole have been conducted in mice and rats. Pramipexole was administered in the diet to mice at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day [or approximately 10 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 1.5 mg TID on a mg/m2 basis]. Pramipexole was administered in the diet to rats at doses up to 8 mg/kg/day. These doses were associated with plasma AUCs up to approximately 12 times that in humans at the MRHD. No significant increases in tumors occurred in either species.

Pramipexole was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of in vitro (bacterial reverse mutation, V79/HGPRT gene mutation, chromosomal aberration in CHO cells) and in vivo (mouse micronucleus) assays.

In rat fertility studies, pramipexole at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day (5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) prolonged estrus cycles and inhibited implantation. These effects were associated with reductions in serum levels of prolactin, a hormone necessary for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in rats.

Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. MIRAPEX ER should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

When pramipexole was given to female rats throughout pregnancy, implantation was inhibited at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day [5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis]. Administration of 1.5 mg/kg/day of pramipexole to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 7 through 16) resulted in a high incidence of total resorption of embryos. The plasma AUC in rats at this dose was 4 times the AUC in humans at the MRHD. These findings are thought to be due to the prolactin-lowering effect of pramipexole, since prolactin is necessary for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in rats (but not rabbits or humans). Because of pregnancy disruption and early embryonic loss in these studies, the teratogenic potential of pramipexole could not be adequately evaluated. There was no evidence of adverse effects on embryo-fetal development following administration of up to 10 mg/kg/day to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis (plasma AUC was 70 times that in humans at the MRHD). Postnatal growth was inhibited in the offspring of rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or greater during the latter part of pregnancy and throughout lactation.

Nursing Mothers
A single-dose, radio-labeled study showed that drug-related material was present in rat milk at concentrations three to six times higher than in plasma at equivalent time points.

Studies have shown that pramipexole treatment resulted in an inhibition of prolactin secretion in humans and rats.

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from pramipexole, a decision should be made as to whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use
The pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of MIRAPEX ER tablets in pediatric patients have not been evaluated.

Geriatric Use
Pramipexole total oral clearance is approximately 30% lower in subjects older than 65 years compared with younger subjects, because of a decline in pramipexole renal clearance due to an age-related reduction in renal function. This resulted in an increase in elimination half-life from approximately 8.5 hours to 12 hours. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial of MIRAPEX ER tablets in early Parkinson's disease, 47% of the 259 patients were ≥ 65 years of age. Among patients receiving MIRAPEX ER tablets, hallucinations were more common in the elderly, occurring in 13% of the patients ≥ 65 years of age compared to 2% of the patients < 65 years of age.

Patients with Renal Impairment
The elimination of pramipexole is dependent upon renal function. Pramipexole clearance is extremely low in dialysis patients, as a negligible amount of pramipexole is removed by dialysis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

-----------------------------------------------------

OVERDOSE
There is no clinical experience with significant overdosage. One patient took 11 mg/day of pramipexole for 2 days in a clinical trial for an investigational use. Blood pressure remained stable, although pulse rate increased to between 100 and 120 beats/minute. No other adverse events were reported related to the increased dose.

There is no known antidote for overdosage of a dopamine agonist. If signs of central nervous system stimulation are present, a phenothiazine or other butyrophenone neuroleptic agent may be indicated; the efficacy of such drugs in reversing the effects of overdosage has not been assessed. Management of overdose may require general supportive measures along with gastric lavage, intravenous fluids, and electrocardiogram monitoring.

-----------------------------------------------------

CONTRAINDICATIONS
None.

---------------------------------------------------------------
 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201061300193834.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
---------------------------------------------------------------

更新日期: 2014-06-23
附件:






201061300193834.PDF    

 
调控比例: 100%
订购表单下载
Copyrights © 2010,2011,2012 www.ShiJieBiaoPin.com, Inc., All rights Reserved www.ShiJieBiaoPin.com, Inc.
客服工作时间:太平洋时间18:00-24:00
国内客服电话:     国际免费电话:
友情提示:以上电话为免费电话,无需您承担任何费用,世界标品提供中文客服,请您放心拨打!
电子邮箱:info.shijiebiaopin.com@gmail.com, info@shijiebiaopin.com