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  药店国别: 美国药房
产地国家: 美国
所属类别: 调节水、电解质药->低钾血症
处方药:处方药
包装规格: 25毫当量/袋 30袋/盒
计价单位:
  点击放大  
生产厂家中文参考译名:
UPSHER SMITH
生产厂家英文名:
UPSHER SMITH
该药品相关信息网址1:
http://www.drugs.com/klor-con.html
该药品相关信息网址2:
http://www.drugs.com/mtm/klor-con.html
该药品相关信息网址3:
http://www.rxlist.com/klor-con-drug.htm
原产地英文商品名:
KLOR-CON 25MEQ/PACKET 30PACKETS/BOX
原产地英文药品名:
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
中文参考商品译名:
KLOR-CON 25毫当量/袋 30袋/盒
中文参考药品译名:
氯化钾
原产地国家批准上市年份:
1986/04/17
英文适应病症1:
Hypokalemia
英文适应病症2:
Frequent, multi-borne premature
英文适应病症3:
Tachyarrhythmias
临床试验期:
完成
中文适应病症参考翻译1:
低钾血症
中文适应病症参考翻译2:
频发性、多源性早搏
中文适应病症参考翻译3:
快速心律失常
药品信息:

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201241023473515.pdf,201241023473012.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
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部分中文氯化钾处方资料(仅供参考)

药理毒理
氯化钾是一种电解质补充药物。钾是细胞内的主要阳离子,是维持细胞内渗透压的重要成分。在细胞内浓度约为150~160mmol/L,在细胞外液浓度较低,仅为3.5~5.0mmol/L。机体主要依靠细胞膜上的Na+、K+及ATP酶来维持细胞内外的K+、Na+浓度差。体内的酸碱平衡状态对钾的代谢有影响,如酸中毒时H+进入细胞内,为了维持细胞内外的电位差,K+释放到细胞外,引起或加重高钾血症。正常的细胞内外钾离子浓度及浓度差与细胞的某些功能有着密切的关系,钾参与酸碱平衡的调节,糖、蛋白质的合成以及二磷酸腺苷转化为三磷酸苷需要一定量的钾参与;钾参与神经及其支配器官间、神经元间的兴奋过程,并参与神经末梢递质(乙酰胆碱)的形成;心脏内钾的含量可影响其活动,低钾时心脏兴奋性增高,临床血钾过低的患者以心律失常为主;钾是维持骨骼肌正常张力所必需的离子。钾离子不足则表现为肌无力,抽搐。

药代动力学
氯化钾口服后可迅速被胃肠道吸收。钾90%从肾脏排泄,10%随粪便排出。

适应症
1.治疗低钾血症
各种原因引起的低钾血症,如进食不足、呕吐、严重腹泻、应用排钾性利尿药、低钾性家族周期性麻痹、长期应用糖皮质激素和补充高渗葡萄糖等。
2.预防低钾血症
当患者存在失钾情况,尤其是如果发生低钾血症对患者危害较大时(如使用洋地黄药物的患者),需预防性补充钾盐,如进食很少、严重或慢性腹泻、长期服用肾上腺皮质激素、失钾性肾病、Bartter综合征等。
3.洋地黄中毒引起频发性、多源性早搏或快速心律失常。

用法用量
口服钾盐用于治疗轻型低钾血症或预防性用药。常规剂量成人每次0.5~1g(6.7~13.4mmol),每日2~4次,饭后服用,并按病情调整剂量。一般成人每日最大剂量为6g(80mmol)。谨遵医嘱!

不良反应
1.口服可有胃肠道刺激症状,如恶心、呕吐、咽部不适、胸痛(食道刺激),腹痛、腹泻、甚至消化性溃疡及出血。在空腹、剂量较大及原有胃肠道疾病者更易发生。
2.原有肾功能损害时应注意发生高钾血症。

禁忌
1.高钾血症患者。
2.急性肾功能不全、慢性肾功能不全者。

注意事项
1.下列情况慎用:
(1)急性脱水,因严重时可致尿量减少,尿K+排泄减少;
(2)家族性周期性麻痹,低钾性麻痹应给予补钾,但需鉴别高钾性或正常性周期麻痹;
(3)慢性或严重腹泻可致低钾血症,但同时可致脱水和低钠血症,引起肾前性少尿;
(4)传导阻滞性心律失常,尤其应用洋地黄类药物时;
(5)大面积烧伤、肌肉创伤、严重感染、大手术后24小时和严重溶血,上述情况本身可引起高血钾症;
(6)肾上腺性异常综合征伴盐皮质激素分泌不足;
(7)接受留钾利尿剂的病人。
2.用药期间需作以下随访检查:
(1)血钾;
(2)心电图;
(3)血镁、钠、钙;
(4)酸碱平衡指标;肾功能和尿量;
3.服用普通片剂及糖衣片时,对胃肠道有强烈的刺激作用,所以最好溶解成溶液后服用。

老年患者用药
老年人肾脏清除K+功能下降,应用钾盐时较易发生高钾血症。

药物相互作用
1.肾上腺糖皮质激素尤其是具有较明显盐皮质激素作用者、肾上腺盐皮质激素和促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH),因能促进尿钾排泄,合用时降低钾盐疗效。
2.抗胆碱能药物能加重口服钾盐尤其是氯化钾的胃肠道刺激作用。
3.非甾体类抗炎镇痛药加重口服钾盐的胃肠道反应。
4.合用库存血(库存10日以下含钾30mmol/l,库存10日以上含钾65mmol/l)、含钾药物和保钾利尿剂时,发生高钾血症的机会增多,尤其是有肾功能损害者。
5.血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂和环孢素A能抑制醛固酮分泌,尿钾排泄减少,故合用时易发生高钾血症。
6.肝素能抑制醛固酮的合成,尿钾排泄减少,合用时易发生高钾血症。另外,肝素可使胃肠道出血机会增多。
7.缓释型钾盐能抑制肠道对维生素B12的吸收。

药物过量
引起高钾血症。

Generic Name: potassium chloride (poe TASS ee um)

Brand Names: EPIKLOR, EPIKLOR/25, K-Dur 10, K-Lor, K-Tab, Kal Potassium 99, Kaochlor S-F, Kaon-CL 10, Kaon-CL 20%, Kay Ciel, KCl-20, Klor-Con, Klor-Con 10, Klor-Con 8, Klor-Con M10, Klor-Con M15, Klor-Con M20, Klor-Con/25, Micro-K, Micro-K 10, Rum-K

What is potassium chloride?
Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.

Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines, or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting.

Potassium chloride may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What is the most important information I should know about potassium chloride?
You should not use this medication if you have kidney failure, Addison's disease, severe burns or other tissue injury, if you are dehydrated, if you take certain diuretics (water pills), or if you have high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia). Do not crush, chew, break, or suck on an extended-release tablet or capsule. Swallow the pill whole. Breaking or crushing the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Sucking on a potassium tablet can irritate your mouth or throat. Take this medication with food or just after a meal.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Serious side effects of potassium include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking potassium chloride?
You should not use this medication if you are allergic to it, or if you have certain conditions. Be sure your doctor knows if you have:
high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia);
kidney failure;
Addison's disease (an adrenal gland disorder);
a large tissue injury such as a severe burn;
if you are severely dehydrated; or
if you are taking a "potassium-sparing" diuretic (water pill) such as amiloride (Midamor, Moduretic), spironolactone (Aldactone, Aldactazide), triamterene (Dyrenium, Dyazide, Maxzide).

To make sure you can safely take potassium chloride, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:
kidney disease;
heart disease or high blood pressure;
a blockage in your stomach or intestines; or
chronic diarrhea (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease).

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether potassium chloride will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication. It is not known whether potassium chloride passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take potassium chloride?
Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Mix the powder, granule, or liquid form of this medicine with at least 4 ounces (one-half cup) of cold water or fruit juice before taking. Drink the mixture slowly, over 5 to 10 minutes in all. To make sure you get the entire dose, add a little more water to the same glass, swirl gently and drink right away.

Do not crush, chew, break, or suck on an extended-release tablet or capsule. Swallow the pill whole. Breaking or crushing the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Sucking on a potassium tablet can irritate your mouth or throat.

Take this medication with food or just after a meal.

Your treatment may include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Potassium-rich foods include: squash, baked potatoes (skin on), spinach, lentils, broccoli, brussels sprouts, zucchini, kidney or navy beans, raisins, watermelon, orange juice, bananas, cantaloupe, and low-fat milk or yogurt. Consume only the daily amounts recommended by your doctor or nutrition counselor.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse. Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the medication in a closed container.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Overdose symptoms may include heavy feeling in your arms or legs, confusion, weak or shallow breathing, slow or uneven heartbeat, seizure (convulsions), or feeling like you might pass out.

What should I avoid while taking potassium chloride?
Avoid taking potassium supplements or using other products that contain potassium without first asking your doctor. Salt substitutes or low-salt dietary products often contain potassium. If you take certain products together you may accidentally get too much potassium. Read the label of any other medicine you are using to see if it contains
potassium. Potassium chloride side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
confusion, anxiety, feeling like you might pass out;
uneven heartbeat;
extreme thirst, increased urination;
leg discomfort;
muscle weakness or limp feeling;
numbness or tingly feeling in your hands or feet, or around your mouth;
severe stomach pain, ongoing diarrhea or vomiting;
black, bloody, or tarry stools; or
coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Less serious side effects may include:
mild nausea or upset stomach;
mild or occasional diarrhea;
slight tingling in your hands or feet; or
appearance of a potassium chloride tablet in your stool.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect potassium chloride?
Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:
eplerenone (Inspra);
digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin);
quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release);
a bronchodilator such as ipratroprium (Atrovent) or tiotropium (Spiriva);
an ACE inhibitor such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik); or
any type of diuretic (water pill) such as bumetanide (Bumex), chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Hygroton, Thalitone), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Hyzaar, Lopressor, Vasoretic, Zestoretic), indapamide (Lozol), metolazone (Mykrox, Zarxolyn), or torsemide (Demadex).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with potassium chloride. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201241023473515.pdf,201241023473012.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
---------------------------------------------------------------

更新日期: 2012-4-11
附件:


201241023473515.pdf    

201241023473012.pdf    

 
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